Man in the Space of Freedom and Resentment: Symbolic Correlation of Existentials




man, freedom, resentment, existentials, being


Purpose. The article aims to problematize the forms of correlation between the fundamental category of freedom and the phenomenon of resentment in the context of the formation of ethical discourse, as well as to consider the symbolic mechanisms of the collective imagination in the formation of a picture of the human world. Theoretical basis. The study uses the method of historical and philosophical analysis and methods of the humanities – hermeneutics and phenomenology. Originality. An attempt is made to comprehend the correlation between freedom as a category of philosophical anthropology and practical philosophy and the phenomenon of resentment. Conclusions. The ethical category of freedom, explicitly or implicitly, significantly shapes the content of the process of choice and social action by a person, which can be manifested in discursive practices and narratives of ideologies, public opinion and collective imagination. Symbolic mechanisms of human consciousness record the paradoxical correlation and at the same time the antithesis of reality reception and meaning generation between rational awareness and existential experience, humanization and appropriation of freedom and emotional-affective, reactive attitude of a person to narratives, motives, symbols and images of resentment. At the same time, freedom can presuppose the conscious content of resentment, while resentment deforms the concept of freedom into arbitrariness or violence, appealing not only to the archaic values of tribalism, but also to the rational basis of individual freedom of the individual, on which the philosophical tradition of the West is based. The resentful forms of thinking and emotional reception of reality function as symbolic constructions, that is, they can have a wide and internally contradictory field of interpretations. Western philosophical thought has a significant potential to reinterpret the challenges of the phenomenon of resentment based on the tradition of ontotheology and ethics of discourse due to the specific rationalism of the vision of the philosophy of freedom.


Boychenko, N. M. (2017). Philosophical understanding of the nature of violence. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, (12), 16-26. DOI: (in Ukrainian)

Ceci, M. (2019). Between Indefinability and Usage. Towards a philosophical understanding of Populism. Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio, 13(2), 51-62. (in English)

Datsiuk, S. (2022, February 11). Use zlo – vid resentymentu. Ukrainska pravda. Retrieved from (in Ukrainian)

Denysenko, V. M., Ostapets, I. Y., & Pryvalov, Y. O. (2016). Svoboda yak tsyvilizatsiinyi pryntsyp. Kyiv: Liha-Pres. (in Ukrainian)

Hirvonen, O., & Pennanen, J. (2019). Populism as a pathological form of politics of recognition. European Journal of Social Theory, 22(1), 27-44. DOI: (in English)

Iser, M. (2019). Recognition. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from (in English)

Khmil, V. V., & Popovych, I. S. (2019). Philosophical and Psychological Dimensions of Social Expectations of Personality. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, (16), 55-65. DOI: (in English)

Kretov, P. V., & Kretova, O. I. (2017). Symbolic landscape of consciousness: man between representationalism, functionalism and relativism. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, (12), 40-49. DOI: (in Ukrainian)

Laktionova, A. (2013). Filosofska antropolohiia i filosofiia kultury: perspektyva suchasnoi praktychnoi filosofii yak filosofii dii. Filosofska Dumka (Philosophical Thought), (5), 73-80. (in Ukrainian)

Loi, A. (2010). Filosofska antropolohiia i praktychna filosofiia. Filosofski dialohy’2010, 4(1), 30-51. (in Ukrainian)

Loi, A., Bystrytskyi, Y., Boichenko, M., & Yermolenko, A. (2017). Praktychna filosofiia: realnist i mozhlyvosti. Filosofska Dumka (Philosophical Thought), (3), 6-23. (in Ukrainian)

Malivskyi, A. M. (2019). Unknown Descartes: Anthropological Dimension of Rene Descartes’ Philosophical Searching. Dnipro: Herda. DOI: (in Ukrainian)

Mazzarella, W. (2019). The Anthropology of Populism: Beyond the Liberal Settlement. Annual Review of Anthropology, 48, 45-60. DOI: (in English)

Morgan, M. (2022). A Cultural Sociology of Populism. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 35, 179-199. DOI: (in English)

Nadler, A. (2019). Populist communication and media environments. Sociology Compass, 13(8). DOI: (in English)

Reichert, R. (2022). Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism in the German Enlightenment: The Anthropological Foundations of Immanuel Kant’s Political Thought (PhD dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved from (in English)

Shapoval, V. N. (2010). Rational, irrational and superrational in freedom. Philosophical Horizons, (23), 87-97. (in Ukrainian)

Sliusar, V. M. (2012). Fenomen svobody v kulturnii samorealizatsii osobystosti: Monohrafiia. Zhytomyr: Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University. (in Ukrainian)

Yermolenko, A. (2020). German political philosophy: moral and ethical aspect. Filosofska Dumka (Philosophical Thought), (3), 6-16. DOI: (in Ukrainian)

Yermolenko, V. (2018). Plynni ideolohii. Idei ta polityka v Yevropi XIX-XX stolit Kyiv: Dukh i Litera. (in Ukrainian)




How to Cite

Kretov, P. V., & Kretova, O. I. (2024). Man in the Space of Freedom and Resentment: Symbolic Correlation of Existentials. Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, (25), 26–35.